AURORA on Earth

Photo Credit: Jouni Jussila, Finland



Marina Galand

AURORA on Earth

Photo Credit: Jan Curtis, UAF, GI





* Cao, Y.-T., A. Wellbrock, A.J. Coates, R. Caro-Carretero, G.H. Jones, J. Cui, M. Galand and M.K. Dougherty (2020), Field-aligned photoelectron energy peaks at high altitude and on the nightside of Titan, J. Geophys. Res.: Planets, 125,

* Carnielli, G., M. Galand, F. Leblanc, R. Modolo, A. Beth, and X. Jia (2020), Constraining Ganymede's neutral and plasma environments through simulations of its ionosphere and Galileo observations, Icarus, 343, 113691,

* Hajra, R., P. Henri, X. Vallières, M. Galand et al. (2020), Ionospheric total electron content of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, A&A, 635, A51,

* Madanian, H., J. Burch, A. Eriksson, T. Cravens, M. Galand, et al. (2020), Electron Dynamics near Diamagnetic Regions of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Planet. Space Sci., 187, 104924, 

* Nilsson, H., et al. (2020), Birth of a magnetosphere, in ``Magnetosphere'', Maggiolo, R., André, N., Hasegawa, H., Welling D. ed, AGU Books, Wiley Major Reference work project (American Geophysical Union Press, Washington, DC), in press.


* Beth A., M. Galand, and K. Heritier (2019), Comparative study of the photo-produced ionosphere in the close environment of comets, A&A, 630, A47, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201833517.

* Bockelée-Morvan, D., et al. (2019), White paper on “Ambition: Comet  Nucleus  Cryogenic Sample  Return”, Voyage 2050 long-term plan in the ESA Science Programme [].

* Carnielli, G., M. Galand, F. Leblanc, L. Leclercq, R. Modolo, A. Beth, H.L.F. Huybrighs, and X. Jia (2019), First 3D test particle model of Ganymede’s ionosphere, Icarus, 330, 42-59, Made the issue cover!


* Deca, J., P. Henri, A. Divin, A. Eriksson, M. Galand, et al. (2019), Building a weakly outgassing comet from a generalized Ohm’s law, Phys. Rev. Lett., 123, 055101,

* Götz, C., et al. (2019), "Cometary Plasma Science - A White Paper in response to the Voyage 2050 Call by the European Space Agency”, Voyage 2050 long-term plan in the ESA Science Programme [].

* Mandt, K.E., A. Eriksson, A. Beth, M. Galand, and E. Vigren (2019), The influence of collisions on ion dynamics in the inner comae of four comets, A&A, 630, A48,

* Moore, L., H. Melin, J. O’Donogue, T. Stallard, J. Moses, M. Galand, et al. (2019), Modelling H_3^+ in planetary atmospheres: effects of vertical gradients on observed quantities, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 377,

* Moore, L., M. Galand, A.J. Kliore, A.F. Nagy, and J. O’Donoghue (2019),Saturn’s Ionosphere, Chp 8, Saturn in the 21st Century, Ed. K. Baines et al., Cambridge University Press, New York, arXiv:1701.05178.

* Myllys, M., P. Henri, M. Galand, et al. (2019), Plasma properties of suprathermal electrons near comet 67P with Rosetta, A&A, 630, A42,

* Rodriguez, S., et al. (2019), White paper on “Science goals and mission concepts for a future orbital and in situ exploration of Titan", Voyage 2050 long-term plan in the ESA Science Programme []

* Simon Wedlund et al. (2019), Solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres - III. Results from the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, A&A,  630, A37, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201834881. 

* Vigren, E., N.J.T. Edberg, A.I. Eriksson, M. Galand, et al. (2019), The evolution of the electron number density in the coma of comet 67P at the location of Rosetta from 2015 November through 2016 March, Astrophys. J., 881,


* Beth, A. and M. Galand (2018), Effects of the convective electric field on weakly outgassing comets, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 469, S824-S841, doi:10.1093/mnras/sty430.

* Hajra, R., P. Henri, M. Myllys, K. Heritier, M. Galand et al. (2018), Cometary plasma response to interplanetary co-rotating interaction regions during 2016 June – September: a quantitative study by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium, MNRAS, 480, 4544-4556, doi:10.1093/mnras/sty2166.

* Heritier, K., M. Galand, et al. (2018), Plasma source and loss at comet 67P during the Rosetta mission, A&A, A77, 618,

* Heritier, K., et al. (2018), Correspondence: On the origin of molecular oxygen in cometary comae, Nature Communications, 9, 2580, [Imperial College news]

* Rymer A., et al. (2018), Solar System Ice Giants: Exoplanets in our Backyard, Exoplanet Science Strategy White Paper, e-print ArXiv: 1804.03573.

* Tinetti G., et al. (2018), A chemical survey of exoplanets with ARIEL, Experim. Ast., 46, 135-209,


* Chadney, J.M., T.T. Koskinen, M. Galand, Y.C. Unruh, and J. Sanz-Forcada (2017), Effect of stellar flares on the upper atmospheres of HD 189733b and HD 209458b, A&A, 608, A75, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201731129.

* Eriksson, A., et al. (2017), Cold electrons at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Astron. and Astrophys., 605, A15, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201630159.

* Hajra, R., P. Henri, X. Vallières, M. Galand, et al. (2017), Impact of a cometary outburst on its ionosphere, Astron. and Astrophys., 607, A34, 10.1051/0004-6361/201730591.

* Henri, P., et al. (2017), Diamagnetic region(s): Structure of the unmagnetised plasma around comet 67P/CG, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 469, S372, doi: 10.1093/mnras/stx1540.

* Heritier, K., P. Henri, X. Vallières, M. Galand, et al. (2017a), Vertical structure of the near-surface expanding ionosphere of comet 67P probed by Rosetta, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 469, S118-S129, doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1459.

* Heritier, K., et al. (2017b), Ion composition at comet 67P near perihelion: Rosetta observations and model-based interpretation, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 469, S427-S442, doi: 10.1093/mnras/stx1912.

* Mendillo, M., C. Narvaez, M.F. Vogt, M. Mayyasi, J. Forbes, M. Galand et al. (2017), Sources of ionospheric variability at Mars, J. Geophys. Res.: Space Physics, 122,

* Nilsson, H., G. Stenberg Wieser, E. Behar, H. Gunell, M. Galand, et al. (2017), Evolution of the ion environment of comet 67P during the Rosetta mission as seen by RPC-ICA, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 469, S252-261, doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1491.

* Vigren, E., et al. (2017), Effective ion speeds at ~200-250 km from comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko near perihelion, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 469, S142-S148, doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1472.


* Beth, A. et al. (2016), First in-situ detection of cometary ammonium NH4+ (protonated ammonia NH3) in the coma of 67P/C-G near perihelion, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 462, S562, doi:

* Chadney, J.M., M. Galand, T.T. Koskinen, S. Miller, J. Sanz-Forcada, Y.C. Unruh, and R.V. Yelle (2016), EUV-driven ionospheres and electron transport on extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars, Astron. and Astrophys., 587, A87, doi: 10.1051/10004-6361/201527442.

* Fuselier, S.A., et al. (2016), Ion chemistry in the coma of comet 67P near perihelion, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 462, S67-S77, 10.1093/mnras/stw2149.

* Galand, M., et al. (2016), Ionospheric plasma of comet 67P probed by Rosetta at 3 AU from the Sun, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 462, S331-S351, doi:10.1093/mnras/stw2891.

* Grün, E., et al. (2016),The 19 Feb. 2016 outburst of Comet 67P/CG: An ESA Rosetta Multi-Instrument Study, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 462, S220-S234, doi: 10.1093/mnras/stw2088.

* Mandt, K., et al. (2016),RPC observation of the development and evolution of plasma interaction boundaries at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 462, S9-S22, doi: 10.1093/mnras/stw1736.

* Moore, L., T. Stallard, and M. Galand (2016), Chp 8: Upper Atmospheres of the Giant Planets: Interfaces between Atmospheres and Magnetospheres, p.175-200, Heliophysics IV: Active stars, their astrospheres, and impacts on planetary environments, Ed. C. Schrijver et al., Cambridge University Press, New York (978-1-107-09047-7).

* Raghuram, S., A. Bhardwaj, and M. Galand (2016), Prediction of Forbidden Ultraviolet and Visible Emissions in Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Ap. J., 818, 102, doi:10.3847/0004-637X/818/2/102.

* Vigren, E., K. Altwegg, N.J.T. Edberg, A.I. Eriksson, M. Galand, P. Henri, F. Johansson, E. Odelstad, C.-Y. Tzou, and X. Vallières (2016),Model-observation comparisons of electron number densities in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during January 2015, Astron. J., 152:59 (8pp), doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/59.

* Vigren, E., M. Galand, A. Wellbrock, A. J. Coates, J. Cui, N. J. T. Edberg, P. Lavvas, L. Sagnières, D. Snowden, V. Vuitton, and J.-E. Wahlund (2016), Suprathermal electrons in Titan’s sunlit ionosphere: Model-observation comparisons, Ap. J., 826:131 (11 pp), doi:10.3847/0004-637X/826/2/131.


* Badman, S.V., G. Branduardi-Raymont, M. Galand, S.L.G. Hess, N. Krupp, L. Lamy, H. Melin, and C. Tao (2015), Auroral Processes at the Giant Planets: Energy Deposition, Emission Mechanisms, Morphology and Spectra, Space Sci. Rev., 187, 99-179, doi:10.1007/s11214-014-0042-x. pdf_file

* Chadney, J., M. Galand, Y. Unruh, T. Koskinen, and J. Sanz-Forcada (2015), XUV-driven mass loss from extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars, Icarus, 250, 357-367, pdf_file

* Cui, J., M. Galand, S. Zhang, E. Vigren, and H. Zou (2015),The electron thermal structure in the dayside Martian ionosphere implied by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation data, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 278-286, doi: 10.1002/2014JE004726.

* Cui, J., M. Galand, R.V. Yelle, Y. Wei, and S.-J. Zhang (2015),Day-to-night transport in the Martian ionosphere: Implications from total electron content (TEC) measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 2333-2346, doi: 10.1002/2014JA020788.

* Fuselier, S.A., et al. (2015), ROSINA/DFMS and IES observations at C-G: Ion-neutral chemistry in the coma of a weakly outgassing comet, Astron. and Astrophys., doi: pdf_file

* Hässig, M., et al. (2015),Time variability and heterogeneity in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Science, 347, aaa0276, doi: 10.1126/science.aaa0276.

* Lavvas, P., R.V. Yelle, A. Heays, L. Campbell, M.J. Brunger, M. Galand, and V. Vuitton (2015), N2 state population in Titan’s atmosphere, Icarus, 260, 29-59,

* Moore, L., J. O’Donoghue, I. Müller-Wodarg, M. Galand, and M. Mendillo (2015),Saturn Ring Rain: Model Estimates of Water Influx into Saturn's Atmosphere, Icarus, 245, 355-366,

* Sagnières, L.B.M., M. Galand, J. Cui, P. Lavvas, E. Vigren, V. Vuitton, R.V. Yelle, A. Wellbrock, and A.J. Coates (2015), Influence of local ionization on ionospheric densities in Titan’s upper atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 1-23, doi: 10.1002/2014JA020890. pdf_file

* Tinetti, G., et al. (2015), The EChO science case, Exp. Astron., 40, 329-391, doi: 10.1007/s10686-015-9484-8. pdf_file

* Vigren, E., M. Galand, R.V. Yelle, A. Wellbrock, A.J. Coates, D. Snowden, J. Cui, P. Lavvas, N.J.T. Edberg, O. Shebanits, J.-E. Wahlund, V. Vuitton, and K. Mandt (2015),Ionization balance in Titan’s nightside ionosphere, Icarus, 248, 539-546, 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.11.012.

* Vigren, E., M. Galand, P. Lavvas, A.I. Eriksson, and J.-E. Wahlund (2015), On the possibility of significant electron depletion due to nanograin charging in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko near perihelion, Ap. J., 798, 130, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/798/2/130. pdf_file

* Vigren, E., M. Galand, A.I. Eriksson, N.J.T. Edberg, E. Odelstad, and S.J. Schwartz (2015), On the electron to neutral number density ratio in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: guiding expression and sources for deviations, Astrophys. J., 812, 54, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/1/54. pdf_file


* Galand, M., A. Coates, T. Cravens, and J.-E. Wahlund (2014), Titan’s Ionosphere, in: "Titan: Interior, Surface, Atmosphere, and Space Environment", I. C. F. Mueller-Wodarg, C. A. Griffith, E. Lellouch, and T. E. Cravens (Eds), Cambridge University Press, New York, ISBN: 9780521199926.

* Matta, M., M. Galand, L. Moore, M. Mendillo, P. Withers (2014), Numerical simulations of ion and electron temperatures in the ionosphere of Mars: Diurnal variations at solar minimum conditions, Icarus, 227, 78-88, pdf_file

* Vigren, E., M. Galand, O. Shebanits, J.-E. Wahlund, W.D. Geppert, P. Lavvas, V. Vuitton, and R.V. Yelle (2014), Increasing Positive Ion Number Densities Below the Peak of Ion-Electron Pair Production in Titan's Ionosphere, Ap. J., 786, 69, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/786/1/69. pdf_file


* Lavvas, P., R. Yelle, T. Koskinen, A. Bazin, V. Vuitton, E. Vigren, M. Galand, A. Wellbrock, A. Coates, J.-E. Wahlund, F. Crary, and D. Snowden (2013), Aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 2729, 10.1073/pnas.1217059110. pdf_file

* Ray, L.C., M. Galand, P. Delamere, and B. Fleshman (2013), Current-voltage relation for the saturnian system, J. Geophys. Res., 118, doi:10.1002/jgra.50330. pdf_file

* Snowden, D., R.V. Yelle, M. Galand, A.J. Coates, A. Wellbrock, G.H. Jones, and P. Lavvas (2013), Auroral electron precipitation and flux tube erosion in Titan’s upper atmosphere, Icarus, 226, 186-204, doi:

* Vigren, E., and M. Galand (2013), Predictions of ion production rates and ion number densities within the diamagnetic cavity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at perihelion, Ap.J.,772:33, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/772/1/33. pdf_file

* Vigren, E., M. Galand, R.V. Yelle, J. Cui, J.-E. Wahlund, K. Ågren, P.P. Lavvas, I.C.F. Müller-Wodarg, D.F. Strobel, V. Vuitton, and A. Bazin (2013), On the thermal electron balance in Titan’s sunlit upper atmosphere, Icarus, 223, 234-251, pdf_file


* Arridge C.S. et al. (2012), Uranus Pathfinder: exploring the origins and evolution of Ice Giant planets, Exp. Astron. – Astrophysical Instruments and Methods, 33, 753-791, doi: 10.1007/s10686-011-9251-4. pdf_file

* Chakrabarti, S., O.-P. Jokiaho, J. Baumgardner, T. Cook, J. Martel, and M. Galand (2012), A high throughput and multi-slit imaging spectrograph for extended sources, Opt. Eng., 51, 013003, doi: 10.1117/1.OE.51.1.013003. pdf_file

* Cui, J., R.V. Yelle, D.F. Strobel, I.C.F. Müller-Wodarg, D.S. Snowden, T.T. Koskinen, and M. Galand (2012), The CH4 structure in Titan’s upper atmosphere revisited, J. Geophys. Res., 117, E11006, doi:10.1029/2012JE004222. pdf_file

* Ghail, R., C. Wilson, M. Galand, et al. (2012), EnVision: taking the pulse of our twin planet, Exp. Astron. – Astrophysical Instruments and Methods, 33, 337-363, doi: 10.1007/s10686-011-9244-3. pdf_file

* Moore, L., G. Fischer, I. Müller-Wodarg, M. Galand, and M. Mendillo (2012), Diurnal variation of electron density in Saturn’s ionosphere: Model comparisons with Saturn Electrostatic Discharge (SED) observations, Icarus, 221, 508-516, pdf_file

* Morse, A.D., K. Altwegg, D.J. Andrews, H.U. Auster, C.M. Carr, M. Galand, et al. (2012), The Rosetta campaign to detect an exosphere at Lutetia, Planet. Space Sci., 66, 165-172, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2012.01.003. pdf_file

* Müller-Wodarg, I.C.F., L. Moore, M. Galand, and M. Mendillo (2012), Magnetosphere-atmosphere coupling at Saturn: 1. Response of thermosphere and ionosphere to steady state polar forcing, Icarus, 221, 481-494, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.08.034. pdf_file

* Ray, L. C., M. Galand, L. E. Moore, and B. Fleshman (2012), Characterizing the limitations to the coupling between Saturn’s ionosphere and middle magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A07210, doi:10.1029/2012JA017735. pdf_file

* Tinetti, G., et al. [including M. Galand] (2012), EChO: Exoplanet characterization observatory, Exp. Astron. – Astrophysical Instruments and Methods, 34, 311-353, doi:10.1007/s10686-012-9303-4. pdf_file


* Cui, J., M. Galand, A.J. Coates, T.L. Zhang, and I.C.F. Müller-Wodarg (2011), Suprathermal electron spectra in the Venus ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 116,A04321, doi: 10.1029/2010JA016153.pdf_file

* Cui, J., R.V. Yelle, I.C.F. Müller-Wodarg, P.P. Lavvas, and M. Galand (2011), The implications of the H2 variability in Titan’s exosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A11324, doi:10.1029/2011JA016808.pdf_file

* Galand, M., L. Moore, I. Müller-Wodarg, and M. Mendillo (2011), Response of Saturn’s auroral ionosphere to electron precipitation: electron density, electron temperature, and electrical conductivity, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A09306, doi:10.1029/2010JA016412. pdf_file

* Lanchester, B., O.-P. Jokiaho, M. Galand, N. Ivchenki, D. Lummerzheim, J. Baumgardner, and S. Chakrabarti (2011), Separating and quantifying ionospheric responses to proton and electron precipitation over Svalbard, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A09322, doi: 10.1029/2011JA016474.pdf_file

* Lavvas, P., M. Galand, R.V. Yelle, A.N. Heays, B.R. Lewis, G.R. Lewis, and A.J. Coates (2011), Energy deposition and primary chemical products in Titan’s upper atmosphere, Icarus, 213, 233-251, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.03.001. pdf_file

* Melin, H., T. Stallard, S. Miller, J. Gustin, M. Galand, S.V. Badman, W. Pryor, J. O’Donoghue, R.H. Brown, and K.H. Baines (2011), Simultaneous Cassini VIMS and UVIS observations of Saturn’s southern aurora – comparing emissions from H, H2, and H3+ at a high spatial resolution, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, L15203, doi: :10.1029/2011GL048457. pdf_file


* Chakrabarti S. and M. Galand (2010), Aurora on Jupiter: a magnetic connection with the Sun and the Medicean Moons, Galileo's Medicean Moons: Their Impact on 400 Years of Discovery, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) Symposium, No. 269, C. Barbieri, S. Chakrabarti, M. Coradini, and M. Lazzarin, eds, pp. 71-79, doi: 10.1017/S174392131007283. pdf_file

* Cui, J., M. Galand, R.V. Yelle, J.-E. Wahlund, K. Ågren, J.H. Waite Jr., and M.K. Dougherty (2010), Ion transport in Titan’s upper atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A06314, doi: 10.1029/2009JA014563. pdf_file

* Galand M., R. Yelle, J. Cui, J.-E. Wahlund, V. Vuitton, A. Wellbrock, and A. Coates (2010), Ionization sources in Titan’s deep ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A07312, doi: 10.1029/2009JA015100. pdf_file

* Moore L., I.C.F. Müller-Wodarg, M. Galand, A. Kliore, and M. Mendillo (2010), Latitudinal variations in Saturn's ionosphere: Cassini measurements and model comparisons, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A11317, doi:10.1029/2010JA015692. pdf_file


* Ågren K., J.-E. Wahlund, P. Garnier, R. Modolo, J. Cui, M. Galand, and I. Müller-Wodarg (2009), The ionospheric structure of Titan, Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1821-1827, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.04.012. pdf_file

* Coustenis A. and the TandEM Consortium (including M. Galand) (2009), TandEM: Titan and Enceladus Mission, Experimental Astronomy - Astrophys. Instrum. And Methods, 23, 893-946, doi: 10.1007/s10686-008-9103-z. pdf_file

* Crooker, N., and M. Galand (2009), Heliophysics: A field with its own universal laws?, Eos Trans. AGU, 90(15), 131, doi:2009EO150005. pdf_file

* Cui, J., M. Galand, R.V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, J.E. Wahlund, P.P. Lavvas, I.C.F. Müller-Wodarg, T. E. Cravens, W.T. Kasprzak, and J.H. Waite Jr. (2009), Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A06310, doi:10.1029/2009JA014228. pdf_file

* Galand M., L. Moore, B. Charnay, I. Müller-Wodarg, and M. Mendillo (2009), Solar primary and secondary ionization at Saturn, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A06313, doi:10.1029/2008JA013981. pdf_file

* Moore L., M. Galand, I. Müller-Wodarg, and M. Mendillo (2009), Response of Saturn’s Ionosphere to Solar Radiation: Testing Parameterizations for Thermal Electron Heating and Secondary Ionization Processes, Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1699-1705, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.05.001. pdf_file

* Vuitton V., P. Lavvas, R.V. Yelle, M. Galand, A. Wellbrock, G.R. Lewis, A.J. Coates, and J.-E. Wahlund (2009), Negative ion chemistry in Titan’s upper atmosphere, Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1558-1572, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.04.004. pdf_file

* Wahlund J.-E., M. Galand, I. Müller-Wodarg, J. Cui, R.V. Yelle, F.J. Crary, K. Mandth, B. Magee, J.H. Waite Jr., D.T. Yung, A.J. Coates, P. Garnier, K. Ågren, M. André, A.I. Eriksson, T.E. Cravens, V. Vuitton, D.A. Gurnett, and W.S. Kurth (2009), On the amount of heavy molecular ions in Titan’s ionosphere, Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1857-1865, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.07.014. pdf_file


* Branduardi-Raymont, G., R. F. Elsner, M. Galand, D. Grodent, T. E. Cravens, P. Ford, G. R. Gladstone, and J. H. Waite Jr. (2008), Spectral morphology of the X-ray emission from Jupiter’s aurorae, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A02202, doi:10.1029/2007JA012600. pdf_file

* Fox, J.L., M. Galand, and R.E. Johnson (2008), Energy deposition in planetary atmospheres by charged particles and solar photons, Space Sci. Rev., 139, 3-62, doi: 10.1007/s11214-008-9403-7. pdf_file

* Huestis, D.L., S.W. Bougher, J.L. Fox, M. Galand, R.E. Johnson, J.I. Moses, and J.C. Pickering (2008), Cross sections and reaction rates for comparative planetary aeronomy, Space Sci. Rev., 139, 63-105, doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9383-7. pdf_file

* Moore, L., M. Galand, I. Müller-Wodarg, R. Yelle, and M. Mendillo (2008), Plasma temperatures in Saturn's ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A10306, doi:10.1029/2008JA013373. pdf_file


* Ågren K., J.-E. Wahlund, R. Modolo, D. Lummerzheim, M. Galand, I. Müller-Wodarg, et al. (2007), On magnetospheric electron impact ionization and dynamics in Titan’s ram-side and polar ionosphere – a Cassini case study, Annales Geophysicae, 25, 2359-2369. pdf_file


* Galand, M., R. V. Yelle, A. J. Coates, H. Backes, and J.-E. Wahlund (2006), Electron temperature of Titan's sunlit ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21101, doi:10.1029/2006GL027488. pdf_file

* Galand M., and S. Chakrabarti (2006), Proton aurora observed from the ground, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 68, 1488-1501, doi:10.1016/jastp.2005.04.013. pdf_file

* Robertson, S.C., Lanchester B.S., M. Galand, D. Lummerzheim, A.B. Stockton-Chalk, A.D. Aylward, I. Furniss, and J. Baumgardner (2006), First ground-based optical analysis of Hb Doppler profiles close to local noon in the cusp, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 2543-2552. pdf_file


* Galand M., J. Baumgardner, D. Pallamraju, S. Chakrabarti, U.P. Løvhaug, D. Lummerzheim, B.S. Lanchester, M.H. Rees (2004), Spectral imaging of proton aurora and twilight at Tromsø, Norway, J. Geophys. Res., 109 (A7), A07305, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010033. pdf_file

* Galand M. and D. Lummerzheim (2004), Contribution of proton precipitation to space-based auroral FUV observations, J. Geophys. Res., 109 (A3), A03307, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010321. pdf file

* Ivchenko N., M.H. Rees, B.S. Lanchester, D. Lummerzheim, M. Galand, K. Throp, and I. Furniss (2004), Observations of O+ (4P-4D0) lines in electron aurora over Svalbard, Ann. Geophys., 22, 2805-2817. pdf_file

* Ivchenko N., M. Galand, B.S. Lanchester, M.H. Rees, D. Lummerzheim, I. Furniss, and J. Fordham (2004), Observation of O+ (4P-4D0) lines in proton aurora over Svalbard, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L10807, doi: 10.1029/2003GL019313. pdf_file


* Lanchester, B.S., M. Galand, S.C. Robertson, M.H. Rees, D. Lummerzheim, I. Furniss, L.M. Peticolas, H.U. Frey, J. Baumgardner, and M. Mendillo (2003), High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles, Ann. Geophys., 21, 1629-1643. pdf_file


* Galand M., D. Lummerzheim, A.W. Stephan, B.C. Bush, and S. Chakrabarti (2002), Electron and proton aurora observed spectroscopically in the far ultraviolet, J. Geophys. Res., 107(A7), doi: 10.1029 /2001JA000235. pdf_file

* Galand M., and S. Chakrabarti (2002), Auroral processes in the solar system, Refereed Monograph Chapter, in "Atmospheres in the Solar System: Comparative Aeronomy" (AGU Monograph 130), edited by M. Mendillo, A. Nagy, and H. Waite, AGU Press, Chapter I.4, p.55-76. text_pdf - figures_pdf


* Galand M. (2001), Introduction to the special section: proton precipitation into the atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 1-6. pdf_file

* Galand M. and A.D. Richmond (2001), Ionospheric electrical conductances produced by auroral proton precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 117-125. pdf_file

* Galand M., T.J. Fuller-Rowell, and M.V. Codrescu (2001), Response of the upper atmosphere to auroral protons, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 127-139. pdf_file

* Lummerzheim D., M. Galand, J. Semeter, M.J. Mendillo, M.H. Rees, and F.J. Rich (2001), Emission of OI(630 nm) in proton aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 141-148. pdf_file

* Lummerzheim D., and M. Galand (2001), The profile of the hydrogen Hb emission line in proton aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23-31. pdf_file

* Vontrat-Reberac A., D. Fontaine, P.-L. Blelly, and M. Galand (2001), Theoretical predictions of cusp and dayside precipitations on the polar ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 28,857-28,865. pdf_file


* Galand M. and A.D. Richmond (1999), Magnetic mirroring in an incident proton beam, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 4447-4455. pdf_file

* Galand M., J. Lilensten, D. Toublanc and S. Maurice (1999), The ionosphere of Titan: ideal diurnal and nocturnal cases, Icarus, 140, 92-105. pdf_file

* Galand M., R. Roble and D. Lummerzheim (1999), Ionization by energetic protons in Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27,973-27,990. pdf_file


* Galand M., J. Lilensten, W. Kofman and D. Lummerzheim (1998), Proton transport model in the ionosphere: 2. Influence of magnetic mirroring and collisions on the angular redistribution in a proton beam, Ann.Geophys., 16, 1308-1321. pdf_file

* Lilensten J. and M. Galand (1998), Proton/electron precipitation effects on the electron production and density above EISCAT and ESR, Ann. Geophys., 16, 1299-1307. pdf_file


* Carpenter D.L., M. Galand, V.S. Sonwalkar, T.F. Bell, U.S. Inan, J. Labelle, A.J. Smith, T.D.G. Clark and T.J. Rosenberg (1997), Quasi-periodic ~5-60 s fluctuations of VLF signals propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide: a result of pulsating auroral particle precipitations?, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 347-361. pdf_file

* Galand M., J. Lilensten, W. Kofman and R.B. Sidje (1997), Proton transport in the ionosphere, 1: multi-stream approach of the transport equations, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 22 261-22 272.  pdf_file


* Nilsson H., S. Kirkwood, J. Lilensten and M. Galand (1996), Enhanced incoherent scatter plasma lines, Ann. Geophys., 14, 1462-1472. pdf_file


* Kirkwood S., H. Nilsson, J. Lilensten and M. Galand (1995), Strongly enhanced incoherent-scatter plasma lines in aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 21 343-21 355. pdf_file


* Galand M., A. Bhardwaj, and S. Chakrabarti, On the importance of the cross-body approach in planetary aeronomy, Advances in Geosciences, Volume 2: Solar Terrestrial (ST) Science, Editor-in-Chief Wing-Huen Ip, Volume Editor-in-Chief Marc Duldig, pp. 239-248, 2006. (Proc. Asian and Ocean. Geoscien. Soc. Conf., 2006) pdf_file

* Galand M., J. Baumgardner, S. Chakrabarti, U.P. Løvhaug, B. Isham, J. Jussila, D. Lummerzheim, D. Evans, and F. Rich, Proton aurora over EISCAT: Optical signature and associated ionospheric perturbations, Proc. of 30th annual European Meeting on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods, August 13-17, 2003, edited by F. Sigernes and D.A. Lorentzen, University Courses on Svalbard Publication, Longyearbyen, Norway, ISBN:82-481-0006-5, pp. 2-8, 2003. pdf file

* Lanchester B.S., M.H. Rees, S.C. Robertson, D. Lummerzheim, M. Galand, M. Mendillo, J. Baumgardner, I. Furniss, and A.D. Aylward, Proton and electron precipitation over Svalbard - first results from a new Imaging Spectrograph (HiTIES), Proc. of 28th annual optical meeting, edited by K.U. Kaila, J.R.T. Jussila and H. Holma, Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory Publications, 92, 33-36, 2003. pdf_file

* Lummerzheim D., M. Galand, and M. Kubota, Optical emissions from proton aurora, Invited paper, Proc. of 28th annual optical meeting, edited by K.U. Kaila, J.R.T. Jussila and H. Holma, Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory Publications, 92, 1-5, 2003. pdf_file


Galand M., Transport des protons dans l'ionosphère aurorale, Thèse de 3ème cycle (Ph.D.), Spécialité Astrophysique et Milieux Dilués, Univ. Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 1996.


Comparative Aeronomy in the Solar System

Proton aurora into the atmosphere

HiTIES: Proton Aurora Observational Campaign in Norway